Factbox: Latest on ratification status of U.S. railroad unions to avert strike

Major U.S. railroads and unions representing 115,000 workers reached a tentative deal in September and averted a potential strike that could have stalled almost 30% of U.S. cargo shipments by weight, stoked inflation and cost the U.S. economy as much as $2 billion per day.

Although a strike was avoided with intervention from the Biden administration, uncertainty still looms over the industry as workers at four unions including the largest rail union have rejected the deal.

On Monday, train and engine service members of the transportation division of the International Association of Sheet Metal, Air, Rail, and Transportation Workers (SMART-TD) narrowly voted to reject the deal.